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Элективный курс по страноведению - английский язык - в помощь учителю
22.11.2014, 12:44

Учебно-тематический план№ Тематический раздел Кол-во часов1. Вводное занятие. 12. География. 43. История. 44. Политическая система. 45. Экономика. 26. Система образования. 47. Культура. 48. Традиции и обычаи. 49. Спорт и отдых. 410 Повторение. 111 Итоговое занятие. 2Всего уроков 34Содержание курса№Название темы Содержание Время (ч.) Формы работы1. Вводное занятие. Знакомство с содержанием курса. Выявление знаний учащихся.1 Викторина “Знаете ли вы англоязычные страны?2. География. Географическое положение. Административные деления. Территории, штаты. Столицы. Главнее города. Острова. Климат. Население.Основные достопримечательности. 4 Рассказ учителя c использованием презентации Power Point. Работа с лексикой. Работа с картой. Чтение с выделением главной информации. Составление сравнительной таблицы. Выполнение тестовых заданий.3. История. Короли. Первые поселенцы. Х.Колумб. Освоение Америки. Рабство. Декларация независимости. Аборигены. Рождение Канады. Создание австралийского содружества. Маори. Основные войны.4 Рассказ учителя c использованием презентации Power Point. Работа с лексикой. Просмотр видеофильма. Чтение текста с извлечением главного. Ответы на вопросы по прочитанному тексту. Составление и выполнение тестовых заданий.4. Политическая система. Монархия. Правительство. Парламент. Федеральное правительство. Конституция. Политические партии. Гимн. Герб. Флаг.4 Рассказ учителя c использованием презентации Power Point. Работа с лексикой. Аудирование аутентичных текстов. Составление таблицы сравнения фактов политической системы Казахстана и англоязычных стран. Учебная дискуссия на тему “ Влияние людей на ход истории и развития страны”.5. Экономика. Сельское хозяйство. Промышленность. Торговые отношения.2 Рассказ учителя c использованием презентации Power Point. Работа с лексикой. Чтение текста с выделением главного. Ведение записи.6. Система образова-ния. Основные ступени обучения. Типы школ. Профессиональное образование. Университеты.4 Рассказ учителя c использованием презентации Power Point. Работа с лексикой. Составление таблицы сравнения систем образования Казахстана и англоязычных стран. Составление и выполнение тестовых заданий.7. Культура. Искусство аборигенов, эскимосов, маори. Архитектура. Живопись. Галереи. Музеи. Музыка и музыканты. Концертные залы Театр.4 Рассказ учителя c использованием презентации Power Point. Работа с лексикой. Рассматривание репродукций. Прослушивание музыки. Обсуждение. Подготовка учащимися докладов и сообщений о представителях англоязычной культуры.8. Люди.Традиции и обычаи. Люди и их жилища. Праздники и фестивали. Церемонии. Национальные блюда.4 Рассказ учителя c использованием презентации Power Point. Работа с лексикой. Выборочное чтение. Аудирование аутентичных текстов. Оформление поздравительных открыток. Викторина – проверка усвоения темы.9. Спорт и отдых. Национальные виды спорта. Зимние и летние виды спорта. Спорт сегодня. Пабы и клубы. Садоводство. Выходные. Каникулы.4 Рассказ учителя c использованием презентации Power Point. Работа с лексикой. Поиски в учебном тексте ответов на поставленные учителем вопросы. Составление кроссвордов (парная работа). Выполнение тестов.10. Повторение Обобщение изученного материала. 1 Тест “Что ты знаешь об англоязычных странах?11. Итоговое занятие. Итоговый контроль. Подведение итогов. 2 Презентация и защита проектов.Список использованной литературы:1. Великобритания./Отв. ред. И.П.Фаминский. – М.: Междунар. отношения. 1990. – 160 с.2. Кубарьков Г.Л., Тимощук В.А. 1000. Сборник новых тем современного английского языка. – Москва: ЗАО «БАО-ПРЕСС», ООО «ИД «РИПОЛ КЛАССИК», 2005. – 1184 с.3. Рыбкина. Е.А. Новая Зеландия. СПб.: КАРО, 2001. – 192 с.4. Сааринен Л., Рыбкина Е. Канада. Пособие по страноведению. СПб.: КАРО, 2000. – 238 с.5. Томахин Г.Д. Англия. ИЯШ № 2, 1989, с.99-. № 3, 1989, с.87- № 5, 1989, с.75.6. Томахин Г.Д. Северная Ирландия. ИЯШ № 3, 1991, с.88.7. Томахин Г.Д. Уэльс. ИЯШ № 3, 1990, с. 90.8. Томахин Г.Д. Шотландия. ИЯШ № 5, 1900, с.94- № 6, 1990, с.87.9. Химунина Т.Н., Конон Н.В., Уолш И.А. В Великобритании принято так. Л.: Просвещение, 1875. – 295 с.10. http://en.wikipedia.orgВ данном приложении содержатся примерные практические материалы для проведения занятий к разным разделам данной программы.Викторина «Знаете ли вы англоязычные страны?»1. The official languages of Canada are:a) English and Spanishb) English and Frenchc) German and Italian2. The capital of Australia is:a) Sydneyb) Melbournec) Canberra3. The national symbol of the small insular state of New Zealand is:a) kangaroob) kiwic) Koala4. The capital of the United States is:a) New Yorkb) Los Angelesc) Washington5. Arnold Schwarzenegger is the governor of the state:a) Coloradob) Alaskac) California6. ……..were the allies of the USSR during World War IIa) The USA and Great Britainb) Italy and Francec) Japan and China7. The princess called “The Queen of Hearts” is:a) Margaretb) Annac) Diana8. During the period of colonization British Government sent to Australia people who were:a) writers and poetsb) prisonersc) farmers9. The name of the man who wrote the text of the Declaration of Independence is:a) Theodore Rooseveltb) Thomas Jeffersonc) Jimmy Carter10. The portrait of ………… we can see on 100$ banknote.a) Bill Clintonb) Benjamin Franklinc) George Bush (sin)11. The street in New York, centre of theatres, cabarets, cinema houses and other kind of entertainment is called-a) Wall Streetb) Broadwayc) 5th Avenue12. The head of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is:a) the Presidentb) the Prime Ministerc) the Queen13. …………. was the youngest president of the USA.a) George Bush (jr)b) John F. Kennedyc) Bill Clinton14. Official currency of Great Britain is:a) pound (sterling)b) euroc) English dollar15. The USA consists of:a) 40 statesb) 60 statesc) 50 states16. Famous Russian hockey players I. Larionov and V. Fetisov played in NHL Club called:a) Miami Panthersb) Detroit Red Wingsc) New York Lakers17. First world underground appeared in:a) Londonb) New Yorkc) Moscow18. Australian actress Kate Blanchet plays the part of the Queen:a) Elisabethb) Maryc) Victoria19. ………… was the first president of the USA.a) Theodore Rooseveltb) George Washingtonc) Ulysses S. Grant20. The state of Australia is:a) a continentb) a part of a continentc) a peninsula21. Russian businessman R. Abramovish is the owner of British football club called:a) Manchester Unitedb) Chelseac) Arsenal22. Bermudan triangle is situated in shore of:a) Great Britainb) The USAc) Australia23. The official residence of the Queen of Great Britain is:a) the Towerb) Westminsterc) Buckingham Palace24. Department of Defense of the USA is called:a) White Houseb) The Pentagonc) Empire State Building25. Statue of Liberty in harbour of New York was presented to the USA by:a) Franceb) Great Britainc) Germany26. Tower Clock, the symbol of London is called:a) Big Danb) Big Benc) Big Man27. What part of Britain is called “land of song”?a) Englandb) Walesc) Scotland28. How many provinces and territories does Canada consist of?a) 8 provinces and 3 territoriesb) 10 provinces and 3 territoriesc) 8 provinces and 2 territories29. What is the longest river in Canada?a) the Nelson riverb) the Yukon riverc) the Mackenzie30. What is the capital of Canada?a) Ottawab) Torontoc) MontrealKeys: 1b- 2c- 3b- 4c- 5c- 6a- 7c- 8b- 9b- 10b- 11b- 12c- 13c- 14a- 15c- 16b- 17a- 18a- 19b- 20a- 21b- 22b- 23c- 24b- 25a- 26b- 27c- 28b- 29c- 30a.The Decline of WelshA hundred years ago 60% of Welsh people spoke Welsh. Now only 20% are Welsh-speaking. Why have the numbers fallen so quickly? Here are some of the reasons for the decline.In the nineteenth century people thought that Welsh were an uncivilized language. If you wanted to be successful in life, you had to learn English, the language of the British Empire. So in many schools in Wales the children were forbidden to speak Welsh.At the beginning of the twentieth century many English and Irish people moved to South Wales to work in the mines and steel works. They didn’t learn Welsh.People, especially young people, moved away from the Welsh-speaking villages and farms to look for work in the big towns and cities, so the Welsh-speaking communities became much smaller.In the 1960s and 1970s many English people bought holiday cottages in Wales. Most of them did not learn Welsh. This also pushed up the price of houses so that local Welsh-speaking people couldn’t afford them.English comes into every Welsh home through the television, the radio, newspapers, books, etc. There are Welsh-language TV and radio stations, but far fewer than English ones. And now there’s cable and satellite TV, too – in English, of course!The decline in the number of Welsh speakers has now stopped. But will numbers ever start to increase again? Young people are now learning Welsh at school, but if the small Welsh-speaking communities of North Wales die, then the Welsh language will probably not survive as a living language.Read the article again and answer these questions:1. What percentage of the Welsh population spoke Welsh in 1800?2. Why were children forbidden to speak Welsh in school in the 19th century?3. Why did many English people buy cottages in North Wales?4. What part of Wales would you like to visit – north or south Wales and what part to live in?5. What do you think if the Welsh language will survive?Answers:1. 60%2. They thought that Welsh is an uncivilized language. If people wanted to be successful in life they had to learn English.3. They bought cottages because the nature in north Wales is very beautiful and the price was not high,4. I would like to live in South Wales because it is more civilized and to visit North Wales because of fresh air and charming nature.5. I think, the Welsh language must survive because children learn Welsh.Wales – the Land of Song.Wales is a land of mountains and valleys. The highest mountain is Mount Snowdon in the Snowdonia National Park. It is a favourite holiday and hiking spot for the Welsh and English.Wales has some wonderful holiday towns. And the beaches are beautiful.This is Caernavon Castle, where the Prince of Wales received his title. There are castles everywhere in Wales. Most were built by the English to keep the Welsh under control. The English and Welsh have been very bad neighbours for centuries. The English have invaded Wales many, many times. And the Welsh invaded England. One of the ancient defensive structures in Britain is Offa’s Dyke. It runs along the border between Wales and England. It was built in the eighth century to keep the Welsh out of England, but it didn’t.The most populated part of Wales is the south around Cardiff. This is where the coal is. In this part of Wales, coal has become part of everyday life. For two hundred years the Welsh have been mining coal in these valleys. Mining coal and singing. The Welsh take great pride in their choirs and their songs have traveled the world from the “Singing Valleys”.The people take great pride in the Welsh language. It is taught in schools and has its television and radio stations. This sign on the border between Wales and England welcomes the visitor. “Croeso y Cymru”, it says, “Welcome to Wales”. But don’t worry, Welsh people speak English too!This is the longest name in the world. It’s a railway station in Wales. Can you pronounce it?Answer the questions:1. What is Wales?2. Where do people like to spend holidays?3. Where did the Prince of Wales receive his title?4. Why was the Castle built?5. What is the main industry in South Wales?6. Does the Welsh language differ from English?Complete the sentences:1. Wales is a land of… (mountains and valleys)2. The highest mountain is …(Snowdon)3. Castles were built by the English …(to keep the Welsh under control)4. The English and Welsh have been …(very bad neighbours)5. Offa’s Dyke was …(one of the ancient defensive structures)6. It was built in the 8th century … (to keep the Welsh out of England)7. The most populated part of Wales is …(the south around Cardiff)8. The Welsh take pride in … (their choir and their songs)9. The Welsh language is …(taught in schools and has radio stations).True or false:1. Wales is a land of mountains. (+)2. The highest mountain is Кazbek. (-)3. Snowdon is in Snowdonia National Park. (+)4. The Welsh don’t like hiking. (-)5. The Prince of England received his title in Caernavon Castle. (-)6. Most Castles were built by the Welsh. (-)7. The English wanted to keep the Welsh under control. (+)8. The English and Welsh have been bad neighbours for centuries. (+)9. The English have invaded Wales many times. (+)10. The Welsh have invaded England. (+)11. Offa’s Dyke is on the River Thames. (-)12. Offa’s Dyke was built in the 20th century. (-)13. The most populated part of Wales is the south around Cardiff. (+)14. This place is where gold is. (-)15. For 200 years the Welsh have been mining coal in these valleys. (+)16. The Welsh are proud of their traditional choirs. (+)17. The Welsh speak only English. (-)18. They have their own TV and radio stations. (+)Индивидуальные карточки: FIND LOGIC PAIRS1) a land of a) Wales2) the Prince of b) Mountains and valleys3) beautiful c) National Park4) Snowdonia d) beaches5) bad e) structure6) ancient f) neighbours7) the eighth g) century8) the most h) pride9) every day i) populated part10) great j) life11) the Welsh k) station12) its own l) coal13) railway m) language14) mining n) TV and radio stationsТексты и задания по теме: «США: Регион Новая Англия»1. Look through the questions and be ready to answer them while reading the text:1. What does “Yankee” mean?2. What state was there the first British settlement in?3. When did they get to the shore of North America?4. What was the first colony of British in North America?5. Who were the Puritans?6. How did the state New Hampshire (Rhode Island, Connecticut) get its name?7. What are the characteristic features of the Yankee character?8. Where did the famous pioneer Samuel Colt live?9. What state is the birth state of Mark Twain?10. What special role did the New England Yankees play in the United States history?NEW ENGLANDOver 350 years ago the first settlers arrived from Europe. The first settlers landed on the East Coast. They began clearing the forests and ploughing the soil. New England with its stony soil is poorly suited for agriculture but it has a lot of water power which can be used in industry.New England includes six “Yankee States” – Maine, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut and Rhode Island. Some scholars suppose that “Yankee” may be the Dutch word “Jan”, the name from “John”, with a diminitive “ee” at the end. It was used as a nickname for the New England soldiers serving in the British army before the war of Independence. When the Americans first defeated the British at Concord 22 miles from Boston (April, 19, 1775) they began to call themselves “Yankees” and were proud of their name. The “Yankees” have a reputation for being honest but shrewd, realistic, practical, untalkative, thrifty and independent.The “Yankees” like to speak about the special role that New England has played in United States history. The American Revolution began in New England, because the “Yankees” were among the strongest supporters of independence. In the 19th century it was New England “Yankees” who led the fight against slavery in America.All the six New England states are alike in many aspects but have their own features.MAINEFirst sailors gave the shore its nickname “Down East” to denote that the state is down to Boston and “Down easters” are the people living in Maine. Four fifth of Maine is covered with forests diving the possibility of developing industry. Lumbering is the main occupation there. Hence its nickname is “Lumber State” and the “Pine-tree State”. Besides lumber, lobsters, canned sardines, potatoes and blue berries are the main products, as well as shoes, beet sugar and paper. Maine is widely known in the USA as the “Switzerland of America” or “Vacation Land”. Tourists come here to see the mountains and snowfalls.NEW HAMPSHIREThe name New Hampshire was given to the territory by Captain Mason in 1629. Before his coming to America he was governor of Portsmouth in Hampshire, England. The state is small but well wooded with many mountains, lakes and rapid rivers.New Hampshire has 222 towns (nicknamed “little republics”), using the traditional town-meeting for administration. “Town-meeting” is either a general meeting of the inhabitants of a town or a meeting of qualified voters of a town. The town meetings elect “townsmen” who run the community. The official nickname of New Hampshire is the “Granite State” and the people there are called “Granite Boys”. New Hampshire is proud of its motto, “Live Free or Die”.VERMONTVermont is noted for its green mountains and maple-sugar groves. It is generally, by simply translation of the original French name, called the “Green Mountain State” and “Vermonters, “Green Mountain Boys”. People are very proud of its nickname because it is associated with Green Mountain Boys in the past (the name of the army) when they fought against New York and won.RHODE ISLANDThe name is derived from the Dutch which means “the red island”. Rhode Island has a few nicknames “Little Rhody”, due to its small territory, the “Southern Gateway of New England”, the “Land of Roger Williams”, for Roger Williams founded Providence Plantation when he was expelled from Plymouth Colony. New Port, a city in Rhode Island, became a fashionable summer home for the very rich.CONNECTICUTIt got its name from the river, which was named by the natives and meant “the long river”. The state is a leader in producing helicopters, electronic goods, jet engines, nuclear submarines. The state is divided by the Connecticut River into two almost equal regions.The nickname the “Nutmeg State” is used for Connecticut, because its people had the reputation of being so ingenious and shrewd that they were able to make and sell wooden nutmeg. Its business pioneers are revolver inventor Samuel Colt and rubber magnate Charles Goodyear.Often called the “Insurance Capital of the World”, Connecticut’s capital Hartford is home for 40 firms.A lot of tourists come here to visit a number of places, including the birth home of Mark Twain.MASSACHUSETTSThe word Massachusetts is formed from two Indian words: “massa” meaning “great” and “wachusett” meaning “a mountain place”. Today a key New England state, Massachusetts was also one of the most important of the thirteen colonies. It was at Plymouth in 1620 that the Pilgrim Fathers landed. They were mostly Puritans, but they were not satisfied with the religious discipline in England. They wanted to “purify” the religion, they had very strict rules about church services and also about the way people lived. There is a story about a sea captain who had come back from a three-year voyage and kissed his wife on their doorstep, outside their house. The Puritans were indignant at such behaviour and publicly punished the captain. They demanded reforms in doctrine and worship. For some time they lived in Holland and in the summer of 1620 they boarded the ship Mayflower at Plymouth and sailed for America.It so happened that two months later the little ship dropped anchor off the Coast of Cape Cod, hundreds miles from the place they wanted to land. The colonists named their settlement Plymouth, and Plymouth Rock is the place where the Pilgrims are said to have stepped ashore.During the Civil War the “Plymouth Pilgrims” was a nickname used in the South for northern soldiers. “Plymouth Colony” was the name of the colony established in southeastern Massachusetts by the Pilgrim Fathers. Later it became known as the “Old Colony”, and modern Massachusetts is often referred to as the “Old Colony State” or the “Puritan State”. The people of Massachusetts are often called “Blue Noses”. The word means one who is very puritanical or inquisitive. Massachusetts is also nicknamed the “Baked Bean State” and its people “Baked Beans” or “Bean Eaters” in allusion to the Puritan State, when baked beans were the regular Sunday meal.The official nickname of Massachusetts is the “Bay State”, because it was originally the colony of Massachusetts Bay. The arrival of the Pilgrims at Plymouth was accidental. They were going to reach the Hudson River, but because of a storm they landed at Plymouth Rock. Before landing they drew up an agreement for government of the Plymouth Colony, called the “Mayflower Compact”. It was based on the principles of Puritanism. They insisted on religious freedom for themselves, but denied it to the others. Roger Williams and Thomas Hooker were settled in Rhode Island in 1637. Puritan oppression reached a terrible climax with the infamous Salem witch trials at the end of the 17th century. In 1692 in Salem Village several hundred persons were accused of witchcraft. Many were convicted, nineteen were hanged. Later most people regretted having lost their heads.2. What state does it refer to?1. The first settlement in North America was founded there.2. Its name is derived from the Dutch word “the red island”.3. It is a fasional summer home for the rich.4. Its people are called “Blue Noses”.5. Towns in the state have their own form of governing.6. It is called the “Insurance Capital of the World”.7. The state is rich in forests. Samuel Colt lived there.8. It is known in the USA as the “Switzerland of America”.9. Its motto is “Live Free or Die”.3. Complete the following sentences using information from the text:1. New England includes2. New England with its stony soil3. Maine is widely known in the USA4. The state is small but well5. New Hampshire is proud of6. Vermont is noted for its7. Rhode Island has a few nicknames8. The state is a leader in producing9. The word Massachusetts is formed from10. During the Civil War the “Plymouth Pilgrims4. Express the same in English to learn more about New England:1. Первые поселенцы высадились на восточном побережье.2. Первые фабрики были в Новой Англии. Они производили хлопковую одежду.3. Рыбная ловля была важна на северо-востоке.4. Особенный характер янки Новой Англии обусловлен историей и географическим положением места.5. Пуритане покинули Англию, потому что они были не согласны с некоторыми учениями английской церкви.6. Территория Род-Айленда, самого маленького штата составляет 3,144 кв. км.7. Столица Род-Айленда – Провиденс.5. Choose any state you like and describe it such a way that the others could guess it.Тема «Австралия»GEOGRAPHYAustralia is located southeast of Asia, and is the only country in the world to occupy a single continent. It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, the Tasman Sea, the Coral Sea and the Arafura Sea. The nearest country is not New Zealand and Australia or Oceania. The Australia continent and the nearby island of Tasmania, form the sixth largest country on earth, with a total area of 7,686,850 sq km. This large area is populated by only 19 million people, making Australia the most sparsely populated continent after the Antarctica. Australia continents of six states and two territories.Area of Australia’s StatesNew South Wales 802,000 sq kmVictoria 228, 000 sq kmQueensland 1,727,000 sq kmSouth Australia 984,000 sq kmNorthern Territory 1,346,000 sq kmWestern Australia 2,526,000 sq kmTasmania 68,000 sq kmAustralia Capital Territory 2,400 sq kmThe Northern Territory, appropriately situated in the north, is a tropical area that runs into desert in the south. The Stated is very sparsely populated, and stations (huge farms). In the extreme north lies the biggest city, Darwin. It is not a big city by Australian standards, but Darwin is the main gateway to this vast state, and is also the closest city to Asia.Queensland is situated in the northeastern corner of Australia, and lies in the tropical and subtropical climatic zones. The largest city is Brisbane, which has a population of 1.2 million people.New South Wales to the south of Queensland is situated in the Subtropical to Temperate climatic zones.This state is Australia is most populated, and is also home to the biggest city in Australia. That city is Sydney and is considered by many to be the most beautiful big city in the world.The New South Wales coastline is blessed with many superb beaches, and contains many famous surf breaks such as Byron Bay.Australia Capital Territory, which is home to the nation’s capital city Canberra. Canberra was planned before the first stone was laid, and was chosen as the site of the new capital city as a compromise between Sydney and Melbourne, who both competed for this title.Across the New South Wales border lies the state of Victoria. Victoria is the smallest mainland state in Australia, but has the highest density of population. Australia’s second largest city, Melbourne is located near the south coast of the state.If you continue west from Victoria you will eventually cross the border into South Australia.South Australia is bordered by the Southern Oceanic and other mainland states. South Australia is sometimes referred to as the driest state in the driest continent on earth.Toward the west of South Australia lies Western Australia. This state covers one third of the continent and is approximately five times the size of Texas. Yet there are only about 1.4 million people here. This makes Western Australia the most sparsely populated of all states, especially when you consider that over 1 million people live in the state’s capital city, Perth.The only State in Australia that is not found on the mainland, is south of Victoria, and sits on the same latitude as central New Zealand. The State is roughly the size of Ireland, or Sri Lanka, and is one of the most mountainous islands on earth. Tasmania’s climate is temperate and the island is covered in wilderness. In fact, about one quarter of Tasmania is protected wilderness.Australia is the lowest, flattest and, apart from Antarctica, the driest of the continents.From north to South Australia spans 3,200 kilometres. From east to west, Australia’s widest point is approximately 4,000 kilometres. Australia’s coastline measures approximately 36,800 kilometers.The Dry ContinentThe climate in Australia is varied and ranges from tropical to sub alpine.Australia is also the driest inhabited continent on earth, but the eastern seaboard where the majority of the population is concentrated, is a lush and fertile area, with a climate ranging from temperate to tropical. The main mountain range is known as the Great Dividing Range has an area known as the Snowy Mountains, or otherwise known as the Australian Alps. This area actually receives snow than Switzerland, and is the only area suitable for skiing in Australia.Most of the continent recieves more than 3,000 hours of sunshine a year, or nearly 70% of the total possible.Australia also contains many pockets of tropical and temperate rain forest on the eastern coast, but the predominate forest in Australia is Eucalypti forest.The southwest corner of Western Australia has a Meditarranean climate and the Northern regions of this continent have areas of Rainforest and below that are large areas of savanna grasslands. Tasmania, the island state in the south has large areas of temperature wilderness and steep mountains.Many parts of Australia have scanty and irregular rainfall. Only where rainfall is plentiful and reliable one can see tall trees are the blue gums of Tasmania, the Big Trees of eastern Victoria, which reach a height of 300 feet. Other tall trees grow along the rainy east coast and many other small trees and plants crowd the forest here, including the ferns and creepers.The commonest trees of Australia are the eucaliptus, of which there are over 500 kinds.Some Australian trees and plants produce hard woody fruits and seeds.Australia has 20,000 species of plants and brilliant wild flowers such as the red and green kangaroo paw. The continent has many species eucalypti or gum trees. Many of the trees lose their bark not leaves and many flowers.Nature fauna in Australia are protected and managed by state and territorial governments.The climate of Australia varies greatly. The climate ranges from tropical (monsoonal) in the north to temperate in the south. The tropical region, which includes about 40 percent of the total area of Australia, has only two seasons: a hot, wet season with rains falling mainly in February and March, during which the northern and north-eastern coast have an average annual rainfall of 1524 mm in parts of Queensland overade annual rainfall exceeds 2540 mm.People of AustraliaAustralia’s aboriginal inhabitants arrived about 40,000 years ago. Their technical culture depended on wood, bone, and stone tools and weapons, their spiritual and social life was highly complex. Most spoke several languages. Aboriginal population density ranged from one person per square mile along the coast to one person per 35 square miles in the arid interior. Today, tribal aborigines lead a settled traditional life in remote areas of northern, central, and western Australia. For generation, most settlers came from the British Isles, and the people of Australia are still predominatly of British or Irish origin. Since the end of World War II, however, the population has more than doubled- non-European immigration, mostly from the Middle East, Asia and Latin America, has increased significantly since 1960. In 1995-1996, Australia accepted more than 99,000 regular immigrants.ReligionDuring the 1800s, European setters brought their traditional churches to Australia. At the 1996 Census, Australian religious affiliations were 27% - Catholic, 22% - Anglican, 22% - other Christian denominations and 3% non-Christian religions, with some 25% uncommitted or professing no religion.On the 10th January, 2001 at 06:37:28 (Canberra time), the resident population of Australia was projected to be 19,272,053.AboriginesThe world Aborigine is derived from Latin and means “from the beginning”. This is the name given to the native Australians by the Europeans. The first human inhabitants of the Australia were the Aborigines. They are a dark-skinned people belonging to the Australoid group. They may have walked and sailed here from Asia. They gathered fruits, nuts and yam, which they ate. In Melbourne and Sydney, the sparse Aboriginal population includes many militants. The whites – who have little experience of Aboriginal traditions an appealing theoretical alternative to western society’s moneymaking and rule by the clock. And public policy tends to be generous towards Aboriginal causes and claims.Facts & FiguresLanguages EhglishEthnic groups Caucasian - 92%, Asian – 7%,aboriginal and other – 1%Grouth rate 0.93%Birth rate 13.47 births/1,000Death rate 6.89 deaths/1,000Fertility rate 1.82 children/womanMaleLife expectancy 76FemaleLife expectancy 82InfantMortality rate 5.26 deaths/1,000 live birthsAustralian people accept guests with openness and cordiality. It is just characteristic of their life there.In Australia, everyone is allowed to visit the building of the State Parliament, for example. Enormous posters invite everyone to visit the local museums of space exploration.Also surprising is the way the Australian people treat each other. White people go to demonstration to protect the rights of aborigines (who are seldom seen on the streets of big cities) – in general, their total number is about 2% of the population of the continent. People on the train, who are really far from agriculture, gladly welcome clouds as possible rains are a blessing to farmers. The harvest there depends on the amount of precipitation, since Australia is the driest continent in the world.It’s uncommon to surround a house with a high fence, with the exception of the Prime-Minister’s residence (which is strictly guarded). It is also a tradition to appear with a smile on your face in public, a common thing for Americans and probably to some extent for English people as well. And if you need some help, and then even people whom you don’t know well will be glad to help you without saying too much. ” That’s what we are here for” is the key phrase to understanding Australia.People live there as if to help and protect each other and maintain the land of their ancestors in its unique and indescribable beauty. Of course, one can speak a lot about the difficulties of living in the southern hemisphere, but to experience it all, one would need live there longer as an ordinary citizen, rather than as a visitor.Australia townspeople are bright and sunny, full of light and surrounded by the care and warmth of people’s relationships, even if it’s a bit idealized there.AnimalsThe dry, desert-like plains of the Australian outback cover more than two-thirds of the continent. Much of the region receives less than 250 mm of rainfall a year. Although the rains may come at any time of the year, there are often long periods of drought, which make it difficult for animals to survive.Many of the animals avoid the heat of the day by staying in their burrows, since it is cooler and damper underground. Some small animals sleep underground right through the hottest summer months. This is called aestivation. Many outback animals can survive with little or no water. Their bodies are adapted to store water from their food and to lose very little water in their urine. A number of animals have long back leas to help them more rapidly and find what little food is available.There are many animals and birds in Australia:Koala (length: 80 cm)-Long jumper. Red kangaroo (height: 2m- tail: 1m)-Wild dog. Dingo (height at shoulder: 50 cm- length: up to 90 cm)-High-speed runner emu: (height: 2m)-Huge burrow (height at shoulder: 45cm)-Huge lizard (length including tail: up to 2,4 m)-Spiny coat (length: 50 cm- spines: 6 cm)-Silky killer (length: 3 cm)-Numbat (body length: up to 30 cm- tail: up to 20 cm)-Raggiana’s bird of paradise (body length: up to 95 cm- tail feathers: 50 cm) and many others.Some Important Dates of Early Australian History1605-06 First Dutch sighting of the coast1616 Arrival of Dutch ship Ecndracht at western coast1642 Abel Tasman’s discovery of Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania)1688 William Dampier’s landing on north-west coast1770 Captain Cook’s discovery of New South Wales1788 Foundation of first settlement (Sydney) by Governor Arthur Philip1851 Victoria became a separate colony1851 Discovery of gold in Victoria1854 Battle at the Eureca Stockade1859 Queensland became a separate colony1883 Comletion of railway between Victoria and New South Wales1889 Comletion of railway between Sydney and Brisbane1898 William Farrer’s appointment as government wheat experimentalist. New South Wales1901 Establishment of the federal Commonwealth of AustraliaWhy is the Year 1901 Important in the History of Australia?On January1, 1901, the Commonwealth of Australia came into being. Before this, Australia consisted of a number of separate colonies. By the Commonwealth Act of 1900, the colonies became a federation. The formation of the commonwealth marked the beginning of Australia as a full nation.The History of Australia Day – 26 January26 January 1788, the historic landing of the First Fleet at Sydney Cove.26 January 1818, Governor Lachlan Macquarie ordered a 30-gun salute to commemorate the thirtieth anniversary of foundation. He also declared that 26 January be a public holiday.Until Federation in 1901, 26 January was celebrated only in New South Wales as Anniversary Day. There it commemorated the beginning of European settlement at Sydney Cove. Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania celebrated their separation from the mother colony, New South Wales- South Australia and Western Australia were proud of their independent foundations.During 1935, Premiers from all States of Australia met together and made an agreement that Australia Day would be 26 January, and that form 1936 an annual public holiday would be declared on the Monday closest to that date. They decided that the agreement that this agreement would remain unchanged for at least the next fifty years.In 1980, the National Australia Day Committee had promoted Australia Day as a time for celebration and awareness of national pride. In 1980, 30 local community committees held official Australia Day celebrations. By 1982 there were approximately 600 local communities holding celebrations.GovernmentThe system of government was based on a written constitution approved by the British Parliament and reflected the political traditions of Europe and North America. The Australian government is given the power of low by being elected by a majority, of the people using the secret ballot.Australia is an independent sovereign nation within the Commonwealth. Queen Elizabeth II is formally Queen of Australia. The representative of the English queen is the formal head government structure.The Australian Federation has a three-tier, Federal, State, and local, system of government. It is historically based on a two system, the party or coalition of parties with the majority in the House of Representatives forming the government.The Australian Parliament and government are responsible for all matters of national interest. Six state governments complement activities of the national government on a state level. Parliamentary elections are conducted by a statutory electoral office, which is part of the permanent. Four political parties are represented in the Australian Parliament – the Liberal Party, the Australian Labor party, the National Party of Australia and the Australia Democrats.The Australian National FlagThe Australian flag is major national symbol, both within Australia and overseas. It belongs to equally to all Australians and anyone in Australia may fly it. The Australian National Flag has a spacious blue background and depicts three symbols: the Commonwealth star, the stars of the Southern Cross and the Union Flag. The Commonwealth star has seven points, one for each state and one for the additional territories.The Australian Faunal Emblem: the EmuThe emu appears with the kangaroo on Australia’s Coat of Arms. During pre-historic times in Australia there were giant emus called Genyornis.EconomyAustralia has a prosperous western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP at the level of the highly industrialized West European countries. Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, consumer goods and equipment, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels. The government is pushing for increased exports, so that a downturn in a world commodity prices can have a big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for increased exports of manufactured goods, but competition in international markets continues to be severe. The country buys abroad farm equipment, office equipment and other goods.Cultural GrowthAustralians are world famous for their love of sport, but they are also enthusiastic supporters of the arts and the communications industries.Australian cultural achievements are becoming well known internationally through the awards gained by films and literature, and the reputation of touring Australian groups.Government support has been an important factor in developing the arts.The Australian Chamber Orchestra, established 20 years ago, become a permanent orchestra five years ago and now tours overseas several times a year.Government-supported television and radio channels play an important part in artistic and cultural development, with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) receiving $515.1 million from the Federal Government in 1994-95 and the Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) $75.7 million.Aboriginal ArtsAboriginal art was little known and appreciated until recent years.Indigenous dance and music have been introduced to national and international audiences through Federal Government support.Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal musicians and combines traditional and modern Aboriginal musical styles, has also proved popular in Australia and overseas. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander writes like Sally Morgan and Jack Davis, and the late Kevin Gilbert and Oodgeroo Nunuccal, are well known throughout Australia.The Federal Government has decided that it will establish a gallery of Aboriginal Australia in Canberra to provide a national perspective on indigenous cultures.Aboriginal MusicFor many thousands years, music has played a very significant part in the life of Australia Aborigines. Song and dance are vital in many rituals and ceremonies, and are often used to dramatize and illustrate a story. The actions of birds and animals are imitated. Children enjoy imitating and learning the dances of their ciders. The word ‘corroboree’ is well known and is often used as the name for an Aboriginal ritual dance.Аутентичные языковые материалы по теме "Природа Австралии"I. ReadingRead the text and try to guess: where has this text come from?1. A leaflet about a guided tour?2. A book about one of the greatest cities in Australia?3. A geography book?Nature at our DoorstepSydney is Australia’s largest city, with over four million residents. It covers more than1500 square kilometers – one of the largest city areas in the world. From the famous beaches to the distant Blue Mountains, Sydney’s suburbs spread out in a network of houses, roads, shopping centers and office blocks. But if you look at a satellite photo of this booming metropolis, the dominant colour is green.National parks have much to do with this. From any high point in the city you’ll see them – large areas of protected bushland, enveloping and giving life to Sydney. Even in the metropolitan area, national parks can be found in many places – beside the rivers, among the houses, around the harbour. The largest wilderness area in New South Wales – in Wollemi National Park – begins barely 70 kilometres from the CBD.Sydney’s environmental wealth is no accident. It’s the legacy of more than a century of conservation efforts by concerned citizens, conservation groups and the state government. Since the creation of Royal National Park – the world’s second national park – in 1879, Sydney’s parks and reserves have been growing in number. They are now part of a large network of some 500 protected areas across New South Wales, working towards the conservation of the state’s amazing natural diversity.Managed by the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney’s national parks exist for a variety of reasons. They give Sydneysiders a chance to relax and enjoy themselves in the great outdoors. They provide habitat for the countless animals and plant species that are native to the region. And they protect Sydney’s cultural heritage – Aboriginal sites, colonial relics, and monuments of the often troubled history that Aboriginal and non – Aboriginal people share.If you’re in Sydney for the Olympics and Paralympics, you won’t be getting into the spirit of these Games without a visit to a national park. Of course there are many other parks to experience throughout NSW. They include the World Heritage-listed rainforests of the north coast, the red desert landscapes of the far west, and the fragile alpine herbfields of the Snowy Mountains. If you are interested in traveling beyond Sydney to discover more of the state’s huge variety of landscapes, we can help you plan a more extensive trip. Welcome to the sandstone, water and bushland that lie at the heart of this Olympic city!According to the text which of the following is true?1. the dominant color of the booming metropolis isa. greenb. yellowc. brownd. black2. from any high point in the city you can seea. a network of houses, roads, shopping centers and office blocksb. large areas of protected bushlandc. countless industrial sitesd. historic defence installations3. there is a large network ofa. 200 protected areasb. 100 protected areasc. 500 protected areas4. from any high point in the city you’ll seea. distant Blue Mountainsb. large areas of protected bushlandc. the Sydney Harbour5. NSW Parks includea. the World Heritage-listed rainforests of the north coastb. the red desert landscapes of the far westc. the fragile alpine herbfields of the Snowy MountainsGive the reasons for1. existence of conservation groups and their efforts to protect Sydney’s environmental wealth2. existence of Sydney’s national parksAccording to the text which two of the following statements are wrong? Find them.a. Sydney’s environmental wealth is an accident.b. The area of Sydney is one of the largest city areas in the world.c. Sydney’s parks give Sydneysiders a chance to relax and enjoy themselves.d. Since the creation of RNP the number of Sydney’s parks and reserves has remained the same.e. There is a large network of parks in NSW.Choose the information which was unknown to you.II. Vocabulary drill1. Match the words and expressions from the text with their definitions:The population of a city or a townTo occupy a territorySituated at some distance from a placeA number of objects situated in a certain way and connected with each otherNature reserves protected by the governmentAn area where the natural habitat is preservedA rich variety of plant and animal speciesGroups of volunteers who aim at preserving the environmentA resident of SydneyRare things inherited from the times when Australia was a British colonyTo feel the atmosphere to get into the spiritrelicsresidentsa networkprotected bushlandto coverwilderness areaenvironmental wealthnatural diversitydistanta Sydneysiderconservation groupsIII. LISTENINGYou will hear a conversation between a tourist and a tourist office person. Why have many tourists from around the world always been eager to visit Sydney National Park? Say whether the statements below are true or false.T-tourist O.P.-office personO.P.- Good morning. Welcome to Sydney Harbour National Park. You can enjoy spectacular views of the Harbour Bridge and Opera House from prominent headlands.T: - Yes, I’d like to visit Harbour National Park and to see native plants and animals for a start.O.P. - Great choice. Sydney Harbour National Park is a natural haven in the heart of a busy city. It protects precious remnants of the bushland that once covered the harbour foreshores.T.- That sounds nice. I hope the wildlife is rich there.O.P.- Sure. Long-nosed bandicoots, native water rats and even little penguins all live elsewhere in the park.T.- I hope to see important cultural heritage.O.P.- Yes, you will. Around 70 Aboriginal sites have been found in the park, from rock paintings to axe-grinding grooves. Some are many thousands of years old.T.- I’ve heard the life of local Aboriginal people was tragic.O.P- Yes it was. During the construction of Sydney, almost all local Aboriginal people were either forced out of the area, or killed by European diseases and guns. Besides, you can also explore many historic defense installations. I’m sure you’ll be amazed at what you find.1. Sydney Harbour National Park is a natural haven in the heart of a busy city.2. Long-nosed bandicoots, water rats and little penguins can be found in the South America as well.3. You can find nearly 70 Aboriginal sites in the park.4. There still remain a lot of local people living in Sydney.5. You can explore many historic defense installations here.IV. USE OF ENGLISHRead the texts. Use the words given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.GREEN AND GOLDEN BELL FROG1. As its name suggests, the --- green and golden bell frog’s upper body is a jumble of vivid greens and almost --- golds. However its croak could be described as “ bell-like” - --- have likened it to the sound of a motorbike --- gears. This once widespread frog is now limited to a series of isolated --- population including one near the Sydney Olympic site in Homebush.LITTLE PENGUIN2. --- of all penguins, the little or fairy penguin grows to 45 cm tall. The only known colony of these ---- seabirds in mainland NSW is in a --- cove of Sydney Harbour near Manly.WATER RAT3.The television --- “Water Rats” may be set in Sydney Harbour but for years these handsome 30-cm native rodents were hard to find. The ---- of water quality in the harbour has --- to increases in the numbers of aquatic insects, fish and mollusks the rats feed on. In 1999 a ---population of water rats was ---- on Goat Island in Sydney Harbour National Park, providing a valued --- to be harbour’s biodiversity.EASTERN GREY KANGAROO4. When European --- first saw eastern grey kangaroos around Sydney many thought the joeys --- carried by their mothers had been born in the pouch. The real story is a little --- complicated. As with all marsupials, joeys are born --- and tiny. They must drag themselves through their mother’s fur and into her pouch, where they attach themselves to a teat and continue to grow.YELLOW-BELLIED GLIDER5 --- possums “ fly” from one tree to another on a sheet of skin which stretches between their forepaws and ankles, --- their long furry tails as rudders. The yellow-bellied glider best ---of the family can travel over 1000 metres in one leap.SUPERB LYREBIRD6. In the theatre of the forest floor, few can match the --- of the male superb lyrebird. Like all lyrebirds, he is able to mimic almost any sound --- other birds and animals, whistles and car alarms. However he also --- a spectacular visual display, with a lyre - ---- tail which he fans over his head to attract females.SHORT-BEAKED ECHIDNA7. Together with the platypus, echidnas are the --- only living monotremes, or egg – laying ---. The short-beaked echidna lives all over NSW, wherever termites – their main food source – can be ---. Their long, … snout is an amasingly sensitive organ, used to search for food and detect danger.FRILL-NECKED LIZARD8. Mascot of the Sydney Paralympics, the frill – --- lizard capable of scaring off even large --- with its fanned – out display. However the show is all bluff – like all other Australian lizards, this reptile is --- harmless. endangermetal,hardlistenchangecoast smallflightseclude serieimproveleadhealthdiscovercontributesettlebemanydevelopglideusefly talentincludeboastshape worldmammalfindhairneckpredatelargeFill in the tablename of the bird, animalhabitatappearancecharacteristic featuresV. WRITINGThis is an extract from a letter you have received from your pen friend :We’re doing a project at school about different Sydney Parks, Australia’s natural diversity, its birds and animals. Could you write me a short report about Australian wildlife to include in the project?Write as soon as you can.I wish you luck in your exams.John.VII. SAMPLE LETTERAustralia’s plants and animals are special. Most of them occur nowhere else and our networks of protected areas are crucial for their long-term survival. Some protected areas can cope fairly easily with different types of human activities. However, the environments of others are more fragile, and their plant and animal populations can take a long time to recover even from the smallest amount of human interference.National parks are relatively large areas protected for their unspoiled landscapes and their native plants and animals. They are set aside for public education and recreation, and usually offer visitor facilities. Situated near large population centers, they offer open space and recreational and cultural opportunities for urban residents. Marine parks are unique and outstanding marine areas, set aside to conserve aquatic plants and animals. Historic sites can include buildings, objects, monuments or landscapes. They have national cultural importance, and are generally open to visitors.Use of English: endangered, metallic, listeners, changing, coastal, smallest, flightless, secluded, series, improvement, lead, healthy, discovered, contribution, settlers, being, more, undeveloped, gliding, using, flyer, talents, including, boasts, shaped, world’s, mammals, found, hairless, necked, predators, largely.Задания по теме «Австралия»1. Now let’s start our competition. You task is to put the missing letters. Thank You.Abro_dAbor_g_neK_ngaro_N_tiveHarb_ _r Key:AbroadAborigineKangarooNativeHarbour2. Read the sentence and say if it is try ore false.1) Canberra is the home of Australia’s government. (T)2) Sydney is the capital of Australia. (F)3) Sydney is the largest and the oldest city in Australia. (T)4) Canberra is a “cyclist’s paradise”. (T)5) Sydney Opera House is one of the greatest examples of 20th century. (T)3. Complete the sentences:1. Australia was discovered in ______ by ________.2. The discoverer of Australia claimed it for ___________.3. The first settlers were ________________.4. People rushed to Australia because _________.5. Australia’s is located in __________ hemisphere.6. The hottest month in Australia is ________.7. About 70 per cent of the population live in the __________.8. ________ is the capital of Australia.9. The Olympic Games were held in Sydney in ___________.10. If in London it’s 8 a.m., in Sydney it is _______.11. People in Australia speak ________.12. Australia became independent in _____.Key:1. 1770, James Cook2. the king of England3. convicts4. gold was discovered there5. the southern6. January7. 10 largest cities8. Canberra9. 200010. 10 p.m.11. English12. 1931.4. What is wrong in the sentences?1. Australia is situated south of Asia between the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans.2. Canberra is the capital of Australia and the biggest city of Australia.3. Aborigines now comprise only 50 per cent of the population.Key:1. Australia is situated south of Asia, between the Pacific and the Indian Oceans.2. Canberra is the capital of Australia, but it isn’t the biggest city.3. Aborigines now comprise only 1,5 per cent of the population.5. Write the names of the territories on the map:Western AustraliaNorthen TerritorySouth AustraliaQueenslandNew South Wales6. Translate the sentences into English – first read the Russian variant, then – the translation.1. Большая часть населения – англичане по происхождению. The population is mainly English in background.2. Английский – основной язык, на котором говорят австралийцы, но один из пяти австралийцев также говорит на итальянском, греческом, арабском, китайском или испанском. English is the main language spoken, but one in five Australians speak also Italian, Greek, Arabic, Lebanese, Chinese or Spanish.3. Средиземноморский климат, галереи, музеи, архитектура и парки привлекают туристов в Сидней. Mediterranean climate, galleries, museums, architecture and parks attract tourist to Sydney.7. Answer the questions:1. What is the official name of the country? (The Commonwealth of Australia.)2. When was the Commonwealth of Australia formed? (In 1901.)3. What kind of state is Australia? (Constitutional Monarchy.)4. What is the capital of Australia? (Canberra.)5. Who is the Head of State? (Queen Elizabeth 2 of Great Britain.)6. Who is the Head of State? (Prime Minister.)7. How many states and territories are there in Australia? (6 and 2.)8. What is the population of Australia? (More than 18 million people.)9. Which is the official language in Australia? (English.)10. What colour is the flag of Australia? (It is blue, red and white.)11. Which are the national colours? (Green and gold.)12. What animals can be seen on Australia’s coat-of-arms? (The Kangaroo and emu.)13. Which is the hottest month in Australia? (January.)14. What are the main ports in Australia? (Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Brisbane and Perth.)15. How long does kangaroo live? (10 – 15 years.)16. Can emu fly? (No, it can’t.)17. What are Australian’s best-known animals? (The Kangaroo, Koala, the dingo.)18. When is spring in Australia? (From September to November.)19. What is the main occupation in Australia? (Agriculture.)20. What does Koala eat? (Leaves of eucalyptus.)8. Do the crossword puzzle.Across:2. Tropical climate. Population 70 000. Capital of Nothern Territory.4. Tropical climate makes this city a year-round vacation place.5. An industrial city. Population about 1 million.8. Australia’s oldest and largest city.Down:1. Capital of Australian island-state of Tasmania. Cold winters.3. Capital of Australia. Hosted 1956.6. 2nd largest city of Australia. Hosted 1956 Olympics.7. It has one of the best climates in Australia. Capital of Western Australia.Key:Hobart.Darwin.Canberra.Brisbane.Adelaide.Melbourne.Perth.Sydney.9. The last task. Choose the right answer.1. What is the capital of Australia?a) Sydney-b) Melbourne-c) Canberra.2. When did Europeans settle in Australia?a) 1488-b) 1788-c) 1492-d) 1901.3. Which is/ are a popular Australian animal(s)?a) Koala-b) Kangaroo-c) Emu-d) All of the above.4. Which two animals can you see on the Australian coat of arms?a) Kangaroo and Dingo-b) Koala and Parrot-c) Kangaroo and Emu.5. Which city is Australia’s oldest and largest?a) Sydney-b) Melbourne-c) Canberra.6. Who are the Australian natives?a) Eskimos-b) Aborigines-c) Indians.7. Who discovered Australia?a) Christopher Columbus-b) Captain Cook-c) Lewis and Clark.8. Australia is not a (an)a) Country-b) Island-c) City-d) Continent.9. Approximately how many nationalities live in Australia?a) 200-b) 20-c) 75-d) 5.10. What is the official language in Australia?a) French-b) German-c) English.11. In which season do Australians celebrate Christmas?a) Spring-b) Summer-c) Autumn-d) Winter.

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